Articles

A Literature Review: User Acceptance of Location-Based Services

Location-based technology has augmented its reach in the last decade and nowadays several services are offered in the market, however, LBS has been considered as a very controversial practice. Disclosing the location offers lots of benefits but also risks for the users, especially, in terms of privacy. In this review, it is observed how acceptance models help researchers to predict the intention to use of different services, as well as, to determine the user's main concerns. The services have been divided in healthcare, navigation, social networking, information, people tracking and location-based advertising to collect and to analyse properly the findings in multiple empirical studies. Additionally, privacy has been studied as a transversal factor that influences the uncertainty in every case-study. Our review suggests that perceived usefulness is the component with more influence in the acceptance of using of LBS, however, intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics are affecting the intention to use the service in different manners depending on the type of service.

Keywords: user acceptance, location-based services, privacy

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Arts, Maps, and People: Exploring Engaging Objects

Through the artistic practice, this research explores the rhythm of an audience’s journey around a mixed reality object. Similarly, theoretical, observational and-self reported methods have supported the study unfolding the audience’s engagement with artistic maps.

Snail’s Place is the designed artwork that uses both, physical and virtual, environments to represent a city far away from Nottingham. Archeological evidence regarding the artist’s hometown was the resource to bring back the complex dynamic of the city; ambiguous criteria was used to inspire new narratives in the spectators. The physical world is a designed aquarium inhabited by coloured snails, they are tracked and projected in a digital map. Regarding the technical solutions, a Computer

Vision and Computer Graphics systems were coded to connect the movement of the snails with the virtual world. The digital map’s surface displays a novel design to hide and reveal the map from different viewpoints, enhancing concepts of exploration and discovery, and supporting the journey of the audience. HCI researchers, artists and general public explored the object revealing key details of their experience. Information about their actions, movements, and strategies are profiled in fourteen sheets, as well as commented in a critical evaluation; likewise, the spectator's interpretation is studied as an active interaction, thus, the audience becomes creatively cocreator of the meanings in the artwork.

The participants showed several different strategies to approach artistic maps based on their journey and their actions. Thus, the participant trajectory was defined by a set of focused and unfocused movements, preferred and abandoned viewpoints, and expected and unexpected actions. In addition, the spectators’ interpretative engage displayed different levels of comprehension regarding their vision of the environment, the living entities and, consequently, the quality of the spaces. Finally, based on the profiles and critical evaluation the artist reflects on the artistic and HCI rationale to inform the artwork.

Keywords: Audience, Engagement, HCI, Mixed Reality, Interactive Art, Trajectories, Maps

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An Ethnographic Study of a Day Out in Family

To observe of a family during their day out, we defined a study in the wild to get involved through going and looking their activities [1]. Thus, in order to articulate the fieldwork, we determined several settings. The study was conducted gathering data in public and private space. The first part was based on conversations in the family’s home, however, the larger part of the activity occurred in the public space (i.e. City Centre, Lenton Recreation Ground and some streets of Nottingham).

The family itself is composed of Javiera (Female 29), Runa (Male 28) and Elsa (Female 5), all are anonymous names assigned randomly to protect their identities. Javiera and Runa are both International Postgraduate Students at the University of Nottingham, they are married and fulfil the role of parents in the family. Elsa is their daughter, she is a student in a Public School.

The study started on Friday’s morning with some conversations between the family, however, the main activity was done on Saturday’s afternoon, and it took 6 hours. We captured the data through different in situ methods from a mixture of video and audio recordings, as well as fieldnotes. The family provided useful feedback after the analysis.

Informed consent was gained before the study begins. We took a special care because of the participation of an underage integrant, however, both parents agreed the consent form. Due to the possibility to join other integrants during the day out we prepared a set of forms, nonetheless, it was not necessary to use it.

Keywords: ethnomethodology, interactional order, sequential order

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Virtual Keyboards: approaches to digital music instruments

The purpose of this report is to describe the highlights of the development of a virtual keyboard that has been created under the principles of the Ubiquitous Computing. This musical instrument is thought as a metaphor of a traditional piano, however, the challenge is to delete the physical interface producing sounds based on the data recognition. Accordingly, in this coursework will be described the conceptual basis that have been identified to explore the new musical instrument, as well as, the criteria that have been taken into account to design the system.

Additionally, the elements that allow the best performance of the artifact will be outlined, those are the structure of the algorithm and the features of the code. Finally, a set of two evaluations will be described to understand the relationship between the sensors and the accuracy of the virtual keyboard.

Keywords: digital music, ubicomp, data, raspberry

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Effects of Network Design

From roadways to social networks, people interact constantly with networks, a set of nodes and edges that can be found in a wide variety of applications in these days. Considering Goldbeck (2014) statements, human use their natural abilities to recognise patterns in visualizations even without a conscious analysis. In other words, if they apply that innate ability to find a special feature in a network, as the closeness centrality, they would find meaningful uses of networks based on their graphic arrangement.

This experiment aimed to understand the efficacy of different ways of drawing networks on the ability of people to make an immediate judgment about the most central node. Thirty postgraduate students participated in the experiment, twelve different types of stimuli were used, combining three network visualizations (graph theoretic, circular and random) and four network sizes (10, 20, 50 and 100 nodes). All participants observed the same set of stimuli in different random order and wrote which node they believed was the most central node. The data obtained was processed as the number of correct answers grouped by type of stimuli.

The result of the relationship between the number of nodes and the number of correct answers was found inversely proportional. It was foreseeable that higher complexity may reduce the ability of subjects to find the centrality, and the results proved it.

Keywords: network, visualization, nodes, centrality

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